Frequency-multiplexed Hong-Ou-Mandel interference

    Mayuka Ichihara, Daisuke Yoshida, Feng-Lei Hong, and Tomoyuki Horikiri

    Physical Review A,107, 032608 (2023).

    • Memory

    • Interface

    The implementation of quantum repeaters needed for long-distance quantum communication requires the generation of quantum entanglement distributed among the elementary links. These entanglements must be swapped among the quantum repeaters through Bell-state measurements. This study aims to improve the entanglement generation rate by frequency multiplexing the Bell-state measurements. As a preliminary step of the frequency-multiplexed Bell-state measurements, three frequency modes are mapped to a temporal mode by an atomic frequency comb prepared in Pr3+ ion-doped Y2SiO5 crystals using a weak coherent state, and Hong-Ou-Mandel interference, which is a measure of the indistinguishability of two inputs, is observed in each frequency mode by coincidence detection. The visibility for all the modes was 40%–42%(theoretically up to 50%).Furthermore, we show that a mixture of different modes is avoided.The present results are connected to frequency-selective Bell-state measurements and therefore frequency-multiplexed quantum repeaters.

    Frequency-multiplexed storage and distribution of narrowband telecom photon pairs over a 10-km fiber link with long-term system stability

    Ko Ito, Takeshi Kondo, Kyoko Mannami, Kazuya Niizeki, Daisuke Yoshida, Kohei Minaguchi, Mingyang Zheng, Xiuping Xie, Feng-Lei Hong, and Tomoyuki Horikiri

    Physical Review Applied,19, 024070 (2023).

    • Repeater

    • Photon source

    • Memory

    • Interface

    The ability to transmit quantum states over long distances is a fundamental requirement of the quantum internet and is reliant upon quantum repeaters. Quantum repeaters involve entangled photon sources that emit and deliver photonic entangled states at high rates and quantum memories that can temporarily store quantum states. Improvement of the entanglement distribution rate is essential for quantum repeaters, and multiplexing is expected to be a breakthrough. However, limited studies exist on multiplexed photon sources and their coupling with a multiplexed quantum memory. Here, we demonstrate the storing of a frequency-multiplexed two-photon source at telecommunication wavelengths in a quantum memory accepting visible wavelengths via wavelength conversion after 10-km distribution. To achieve this, quantum systems are connected via wavelength conversion with a frequency-stabilization system and a noise-reduction system. The developed system is stably operated for more than 42 h. Therefore, it can be applied to quantum repeater systems comprising various physical systems requiring long-term system stability.

    Single-shot high-resolution identification of discrete frequency modes of single-photon-level optical pulses

    Daisuke Yoshida, Mayuka Ichihara, Takeshi Kondo, Feng-Lei Hong, and Tomoyuki Horikiri

    Physical Review A, 106, 052602 (2022).

    • Interface

    • Memory

    Frequency-multiplexed quantum communication usually requires a single-shot identification of the frequency mode of a single photon. In this paper, we propose a scheme that can identify the frequency mode with high resolution even for spontaneously emitted photons whose generation time is unknown, by combining the time-to-space and frequency-to-time mode mapping. We also demonstrate the mapping of the frequency mode (100 MHz intervals) to the temporal mode (435 ns intervals) for weak coherent pulses using atomic frequency combs. This frequency interval is close to the minimum frequency mode interval of the atomic frequency comb quantum memory with the Pr3+-ion-doped Y2SiO5 crystal, and the proposed scheme has the potential to maximize the frequency multiplexing of the quantum repeater scheme with the memory.